‘Action indicators’ are a special class of attention directors, which draw the user’s attention to a step of the training that needs to be completed and at the same time indicate the type of action that is required to perform the action, for example indicating which way a valve needs to be turned or the direction a door should open.
They are typically overlaid next to the object with arrows and animations to help the user understand the required action.
Here the animated arrow indicates that the door needs to be opened and closed and provides a clue about the required action to do it.
Similarly the indicator here indicates the lever needs to be pulled down. This is particularly important with VR systems that cannot track the position of the hands or controller. In the two examples here the user must use gaze to perform the action, rather than directly with their hands, which makes the experience less realistic and immersive, but still effective at learning correct sequences, and perhaps more cost effective.